Unit: God

Definitions of God

  1. “Oh my god”

  2. The Spirit

  3. Light

  4. The flying spaghetti monster

  5. The laws of nature (science)

  6. The omnipotent being(s)


God is the greatest being can be conceived, Greatest beings contains all qualities, Existence is a quality, Therefore God exists.


  • God exists (with justification)

Proof of God

  • It is not logical because it is limited by counter-arguments

  • Personal experience qualifies as evidence?

  • Objective or subjective
    • It is very hard to have objective evidence because a universal, objective miracle is no longer a miracle, but a new law of nature.

Cosmological Proof

Looks at evidence

  • The universe is in motion, the first mover is the “god”

  • Universe is caused by a previous cause (aka the first cause)

  • Objections:
    • Is motion the nature state?

    • How does a first cause exist?
      • The universe is like falling dominos and it requires a first outside cause (force)

      • Possible Explanation: the universe always exists and doesn’t need a cause.

Designer Proof

There are order, pattern, laws, purpose in the universe, therefore there must be an intelligent “designer”.

  • The universe is like a clock

  • There are complex organisms

  • Objections
    • Random evolution

    • This happened by chance

    • If we were designed, why are there cancer

Evil: The problem

That which brings pain and suffer but serves no purpose

    • Sickness and death

    • Absence of “god”

    • moral

    • natural

    • Is there a design?

    • What about god’s nature?
      • counter-arguments:
        • For punishment (benevolent)

        • Hidden purpose

        • If people were “designed” to have free will, then there would be evil because we have some control.

  • Objections:
    • A world without bad quality is meaningless

    • Free will is designed so people can believe in God


There is only one god.


There are multiple gods.


God is everything.


God is greater than everything.


  • God does not exist (with justification)


  • Unknown if God exists (no justification)

  • Pessimistic agnostic (don’t think god exist but no evidence)

  • Positive agnostic (believe God exists but no evidence)

  • Sincere agnostic.


  • Pragmatism (no set definition)

  • No observation

  • Faith (which is not logical) like other believes. It is a choice.

  • Kind of pragmatic existentialism

  • Living forced momentous
    • Live choice (a choice that’s available and can be postponed)

    • Forced choice (a choice that you must make)

    • Momentous (one cannot be undone)


  • Existentialist.

  • Not a being.

  • God is Being(existence) itself.
    • Therefore there is no point proving it.

  • God is not an object.

  • God should not be referred to by a sexual personal pronounce because it limits God.


  • The god Krishna

  • Brahman (all is divine, the source of life and universe)

  • Atman (the deepest consciousness), physical is an illusion

  • Samsara, the process of reincarnation, the wheel of life.

  • The goal is to step off the cycle.


  • Ontological argument

  • Causal argument


  • Father of existentialism.
    • Religious self

  • Anti-definitions of God

  • Believing in god is a person’s conscious choice and has no impact on anyone else.

  • Feel (unknown) better than knowledge

  • Subjective - “Passion”

  • God is the unknown


  • The word God has taken a male identity (because the word goddess exists)

  • She uses word “divinity” to refer to God.


  • Five proves of god
    1. There has to be the first mover

    2. There has to be the first efficient cause

    3. There has to be a necessary (non-contingent) being

    4. There has to be a designer

    5. There has to be perfect being

  • Description of God
    • Not univocal (completely the same)

    • Not equivocal (completely different)

    • Analogical (similar but slightly different)


  • Self educated

  • Different meaning of eternal

  • God exists separate from time because God doesn’t change

  • Body and mind are fundamentally the same

  • Matter and energy are fundamentally the same


  • Mystical experience (numinous)

  • You know but you can’t prove to others (noetic)

  • Unexplainable stage of joy (ecstasy)