Unit 5: Knowledge

Type of lies:

  • Lies by omission

  • Lies by commission

Empiricism

Locke

  • Tabula Rasa (Our mind is empty at birth)

  • Sensor “experience”

  • We know what we experience
    • Primary experience (qualities that resides in the object, such as weight and shape)

    • Secondary experience (qualities that resides outside the object, such as color)
      • Inspired by color blindness

  • Copy theory: our mind has a copy of the object
    • Our memory

Hume

  • What’s the nature of our mind that allows us to compare the current experience with the past experience

  • Really good pool player despite not believing in causality

Rationalism

Plato

  • Mystic rationalist.

  • Ladder of knowledge
    • Mind

      Training

      Object of knowledge

      wisdom

      dialectic

      forms

      logic

      myth

      numbers/laws

      belief

      physical science

      physical object

      Imagination

      arts/literature

      images

    • dialectic: two or more minds involved in an intellectual discussion about truth

Descartes

  • Method of doubt

  • Ideas

  • 3 sources
    1. Innate (we are born with basic mathematical functions)

    2. Invented (similar to Plato’s imagination, ideas we made up)

    3. Foreign (e.g. God, it is the source of the idea itself)

Interview Clip

  • Wisdom is a special kind of truth

  • Objective truth
    • True for all people

    • Truth is what works, doesn’t bring you to conflict with reality (pragmatic definition).

    • There could be objective moral truth

  • Subjective truth
    • The judgement you make

  • Truth is a property of our thought, reality is what measures it.

  • Assertion and correspondence
    • If your argument agrees with the reality, then it is true.

  • Universal human nature

  • Our mind has an innate structure.

Review

  • Warranted statement is at least knowledge.

  • Gettier example: our presumptions are sometimes well founded, not always.

  • Correspondence theory: what I think correspond with the truth.

  • Coherence theory: truth must fit each other, at least not contradict.

  • Deflation theory: truth has to be deflated to metaphysics.

  • Instrumentalist: a good, true theory can be used to make an accurate description of the future.

  • Literal: one exact meaning

  • Moral: The ethical meaning

  • Symbolic: meaning that transcend the simple meaning of the words.

  • Anagogical: hidden meaning

The 3 step processing - Apprehend: Take in with help through senses - Remember: accurately recall - Connected/synthesize: connect various past experience and generate something new.