The Segregated South

  • Redeemers
    • undo reconstruction

    • Public education suffered

    • Louisiana literacy rate dropped from 1800-1900

  • Laws authorized the arrest of anyone without a job

  • Private prisons turned to labor camps
    • “One dies, get another”

  • The main attraction of South was cheap and convict labor

  • The south had little industry or skilled laborers by 1900
    • Dependent on the North for manufactured goods

  • The general economy of south worsened even though some merchants and planters gained considerable profits

  • FDR declared the South as the nation’s number one economic problem in 1930s

  • Blacks had a lower percentage of lands in the Deep South in 1900 than at the end of the reconstruction

  • A new middle class of blacks rose as teachers and shopkeepers etc., but the blacks are excluded from being supervisors in the factories and workshops or being clerks.

  • Unions excluded blacks

  • Higher percentage of black women worked in the factories than white women.

  • 40-60k black migrated to Kansas in 1879-1880, causing Kansas Exodus. Most of them ended up being unskilled laborers

  • The number of black officeholders dropped

  • The National Association of Colored Women founded in 1896 challenged the racial equality

  • Mechanisms such as poll tax, literacy tests, and understanding of the state constitution were enacted to exclude the blacks from voting in the South.

  • Grandfather clause, invalidated by the supreme court in 1915, exempted whites from those tests.

  • Many poor and illiterate whites also lost the ability to vote.

  • Only 3% of the adult black southerners could vote in 1940.

  • In Plessy v. Ferguson, the supreme court approved state laws to require racial segregation. The Court insisted the blacks were “separate but equal”. John Marshal Harlan disagreed with this idea.
    • Laws required the segregation to apply to cemeteries, toilets, etc. emerged after the case. Some taxis were forbidden to carry passengers of different race at the same time.

  • More than 50 people were lynched every year from 1883 to 1905.
    • Some lynching were advertised in advanced and attracted thousands of spectators

  • Ida B. Wells became the nation’s antilynching advertiser

  • In the late 1890s, the Civil War was remembered as a family quarrel between the white Americans, a war of “brother against brother”. The Reconstruction was regretted as a period of “Negro rule”

  • South erected monuments for The Lost Cause (slavery)

  • The death of the Confederacy was equated with the death of Christ

  • Segregation
    • de jure (by law)

    • de facto (by social standard)

    • Segregation was motivated not by the desire to stay away from the blacks but to keep the blacks second class citizens

  • Ida B. Wells

  • Campaign to dehumanize black people, lynching was a part of the campaign

  • Booker T. Washington
    • Tries to soften white attitudes to black

    • Started to be the national leader after the death of Fredrick Douglass

  • Struggle of marginalized ordinary people
    • Woken up by the new transportation and communication methods