Civil War

Foner 402-416

  • The magic word Freedom

  • Key factors to victory
    • political leadership

    • ability to mobilize economic resources

    • society’s willingness to fight

  • Patriotisms on both sides

  • enlist -> draft

  • Modern technologies
    • telegraphs and railroads

    • iron ships

    • modern rifle

  • Primitive medical cares

  • Diseases killed more people than combats

  • Propagandas

  • Primitive photographs on newspapers

  • No national rail gauge

  • No effective tax system

  • No national bank

  • Union army became the best-supplied army in the history

  • Lincoln made slavery a military target

  • First significant conflict: first battle of Bull Run

  • Battle of Antietam
    • Sep 17, 1862

    • The most deadly day of the US history

  • Ulysses S. Grant
    • Captured Fort Henry and Donelson (first significant Union victory)

  • First year of war: no interference with slavery
    • North returned fugitive slaves

  • Late 1861: slaves were treated as contrabands

  • Thousands of slaves ran to Union front line
    • Provided military intelligence and geographical knowledges

  • March 1862: returning fugitive slaves was banned by Congress

  • Gradual emancipation in border states, slave owners compensated by the government

  • The Emancipation Proclamation
    • Only free slaves from states under Confederate’s control

    • Changed Lincoln’s mind to enlist black soldiers

  • 1/3 of black soldiers died in the war

  • Many slaves in border states were emancipated because of families

  • Blacks were discriminated in the army


  • Gradual emancipation in border states

  • North shifted to more abolitionist

  • Lincoln used the war to push abolition forward

  • The proclamation committed the nation to abolition

  • “Seldom in history, has a counter-revolution so effectively ensured the success of the very revolution it sought to avert.”
    • Counter-revolution: the secession

    • the revolution: the abolition

  • 90% of black soldiers who died in war died because of diseases

  • Prison camp
    • 28% of men died in the camp

Foner 416-432

The North

  • Second American Revolution: social and governmental changes

  • Lincoln: US ideas centered on political democracy and human liberty

  • People started to refer to th US as a nation instead of a Union

  • Religious press devoted more space to the war than spiritual matters

  • Both sides had system for recording deaths and injuries

  • Black soldiers were buried in a segregated section of military cemeteries

  • Criticism of war time efforts were equated to treason

  • Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus twice

  • Northern economy boomed due to wartime industrial contracts with the government and growing demands for food

  • Homestead Act: offered free public land to settlers in the West

  • Land grants to railroad companies

  • Transcontinental railroad completed in 1869, greatly reduced travel time from east to west

  • Confederated failed to invade New Mexico

  • Conflict started between west Indians and white settlers after Lincoln retracted the troop to DC

  • 38 Indian were hanged due to a military sentence

  • Navajo’s Long Walk: comparable to trail of tears

  • Tribes owned slaves sided with the Confederacy
    • They were required to give slaves lands after the war

  • North printed $400 million paper money and issued $2 billion bonds

  • Federal budget in 1865 was about 20 times as in 1860

  • Women moved into factories to fill wartime labor shortage
    • Had a taste of independence

  • Sanitary Fairs: military banners, uniforms, etc.

  • North allowed drafted people to provide substitutes or purchase exemption

  • Introduction of drafts caused riots in New York City, more than 100 people died

The South

  • Other nations expanded cotton productions, causing over-production after the war

  • South exempted one white man for every twenty slaves on a plantation

  • Non-slaveholders in the South believed they had an unfair share of the burden of the war

  • South printed $1.5 billion paper money

  • Allowed military officers to seize farm goods and paying with the worthless paper money

  • Had 100k+ deserters

  • Organized peace movements by 1864

  • Non-slaveholding white women had difficulties gaining enough food

  • Women started to believe the independence was not worth the cost

  • South employed slave labors in the army

Winslow Homer

Associated with Maine. Most of the works in Portland museum. Went to observe the civil war with McCallen. Primarily genre paintings

Themes: - Mortality - Isolation

Sharpshooter, target out of the painting, faceless man. A calm painting.

Foner 432-454

  • Stonewall Jackson was killed by his own soldier by misfire

  • Battle of Gettysburg
    • The largest battle fought in the NA

    • The Confederacy lost the battle in a charge

  • Battle of Vicksburg
    • Grant won the war by launching a siege

    • Confederacy army surrendered on July 4, 1983

  • Grant began a war of attrition (high casualties) in Virginia
    • Planned for continuous attacks all alone the line

    • 60,000 deaths in the Union and 30,000 in the Confederacy after 6 weeks

  • Lincoln won reelection after victory in Atlanta

  • The sea island experiment
    • 10,000 blacks left on an island

    • Lands were bought by northern investors instead of former slaves

  • Vicksburg had blacks to sigh labor contracts with their former owners, did not achieve a satisfactory result

  • The Ten-Percent Plan of Reconstruction
    • Amnesty and restoration of rights and properties except for slaves to former white slave owners after an oath of loyalty

    • The state could elect a new government after 10% of the voters took the oath

  • Wade-Davis bill
    • Require a majority to swear the oath before establishing the new government

    • Passed the congress but pocket vetoed by Lincoln

  • Sherman’s army destroyed all the railroads and supplies they could not use in Georgia and South Carolina

  • Congress approved the thirteenth amendment in January 1865

  • Grant captured South capital in April 3, 1865

  • Former slaves kneeled around Lincoln

  • Lee surrendered on April 9, 1865

  • Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865

  • North defined freedom as free labor

  • South had conflict between former planters and slaves

  • The Freedmen’s Bureau
    • 1865-1870

    • Roles
      • Establish schools

      • Provide aid to the aged and poor

      • Settle disputes

      • Equal treatments of white and blacks before courts

    • Established 3,000 schools

  • Andrew Johnson ordered lands to be returned to former owners

  • Sharecropping
    • Allowed black families to rent lands from plantations

    • The production was split equally between then blacks and the plantation owner

  • Crop Lien
    • Using part of crops to get loans

    • White yomen became trapped and went to sharecropping

  • Merchants, railroad promoters, and bankers became the new middle class in the South

Foner 454-466

  • Andrew Johnson
    • The only senator from a seceding state

    • He was nominated as vice president as a symbol of reunion

    • Deeply racist

    • Pardoned most of the Southern whites except for Confederate leaders and planters

    • Granted local governments, elected by whites alone, power over almost everything

    • Believed that blacks did not deserve citizenship

    • Impeached but 1 vote from convicted

  • Black Codes
    • Rights to properties and marriage

    • Cannot testify against whites in a court

    • Cannot vote

    • Blacks who did not sigh yearly labor contracts could be arrested

  • Radical republicans demanded Southern governments to be reconstructed to include blacks and exclude rebels

  • Thaddeus Stevens’s proposal to divide lands plantation lands among former slaves failed to pass

  • Moderate republicans feared nobody would accept black suffrage

  • Civil Rights Bill of 1866
    • Passed by overriding Johnson’s veto

    • All persons born in the US as citizens

    • Equality before the law

  • The Fourteenth Amendment
    • Citizenship of all people born in the US

    • Did not include black suffrage

    • Allowed the federal government to protect all Americans

    • Restricting males to vote = less representation in Congress

  • Reconstruction Act
    • Passed with Johnson’s veto

    • Divided the South into 5 military districts

    • Black were given the right to vote

  • Tenure Office Act
    • The president cannot remove anyone from office without the Congress’s approval

  • The Fifteenth Amendment was approved shortly after Grant’s election

  • The central government became the custodian to freedom

  • The constitution began to convey the rights of individuals

  • The fourteenth amendment introduced the word “male” into the constitution

  • The supreme court declared that women did not enjoy the right of free labor

  • New state constitutions provided free public educations, orphan asylums, penitentiaries, and home for the insane

  • Blacks were represented in all levels of the government
    • 14 elected to the house

  • Many reconstruction officials were northerns who lived in the South, called carpetbaggers.

  • Most white republicans were born in the South, called scalawags, with the majority of them non-slaveholding white farmers.