Immigration and Consumerism

  • 3.5m newcomers came to the US during 1890s, over half of them arrived from eastern Europe

  • The Immigration Restriction League
    • Barring illiterates from immigrating to the US, vetoed by Cleveland

  • Nearly all states adopted Australian ballot, which eliminated the illiterates from voting.

  • Chinese Exclusion Act
    • Made permanent in 1902

    • Using photographs for id purpose

    • Congress published a Resolution of Regret in 2012

    • Chinese suffered mob violence on the west coast

    • SF provided no education to Chinese from 1871-1885

    • Segregated education after that due to CA supreme court ruling

  • The supreme court ruled US born Chinese had citizenship by 14th amendment, but allowed the Congress to restrict Chinese immigration

  • The Court authorized congress to expel Chinese aliens without due process of law.

  • Booker T. Washington’s Atlanta Compromise was widely praised

  • Reform shifted to more limited goals

  • American Federation of Labor
    • Unions should not pursue a Utopian dream

    • Labor movements became less inclusive

    • Restricted membership to skilled workers and thus excluding the majority of the laborers

  • Women’s Era
    • Started in 1890s, lasted for 3 decades

    • Woman’s Christian Temperance Union was the largest female organization

    • Feminism shifted to align with racial and ethnic norms

    • Focused on native-born middle-class woman

    • Attempted to use women suffrage to counter the “ignorant foreign vote”