West: Jeffersonian East: Hamiltonian

Native American

Around civil war: native american held about half of the land in the US


  • The decline of the bison

  • The homestead act -> increase in white settlers

  • The discovery of gold and silver

  • Government policies and corruption

  • Native American’s attempts to assimilate

  • Military clashes between the government and the tribes

Native Americans depended heavily on bison/buffalo for food, shelter, and spiritual lives.

White hunted buffalo for sport and food Commercial use of buffalo hides, e.g. belts, bones for fertilizers ~5000 bison were killed every day -> close to extinction


  • Dawes act
    • 1887

    • Surveyed the reservations

    • Each head of the family got 160 acres and US citizenship
      • Tricked or swindled to sell the lands

      • By 1934 Indians lost half the the lands from Dawes act

  • Boarding schools
    • Forced assimilations of the youth

Nuclear families

Military Clashes

  • The Sand Creek Massacre

  • Little Big Horn/Custard’s last stand
    • “The only good Indian is a dead Indian”

    • Custard had 250 men attacking 2500 Indians

    • Sioux surrendered a few month later

  • Wounded Knee
    • The ghost dance

    • Arrested and unarmed the Indians

    • Open fired with machine guns

1890 as the symbolic closing of the Indian frontier The 1890 census showed no definite frontier

  • Fredrick Jackson Turner
    • The significance of the frontier in American history
      • Within 5 years: taking over Hawaii, Puerto Rico and others