The War At Home

  • There were many wartime reformers

  • Selective Service Act: 24 million men were required to register draft

  • War Industries Board: dictates wartime production of raw and manufactured goods
    • Standardized everything, including shoe colors

  • Railroad Administration took over transportation

  • The War Labor Board, along with AFL, pressed for minimum wages, 8 hour workday, and the right to form unions

  • People bought liberty bonds

  • High income tax during the war, with the wealthiest people paying 60%

  • IWW and the Socialist party opposed involving in WWI and called for workers to refuse to fight

  • Wilson created The Committee for Public Information (CPI) for propaganda
    • Advertised for eight hour workday and minimum wages

    • Claimed the war was fought for “the great cause of freedom”

  • Most of advocates for the suffrage movement opposed American involvement

  • Jeannette Rankin of Montana opposed the declaration of war against Germany, Japan, and Vietnam in the Congress

  • Leaders of women suffrage sold bonds, organized rallies, and worked for wartime production industries

  • A new generation of college educated women started to fight for womens’ rights

  • A group of women, lead by Alice Paul, chained themselves to the White House fence and lead to 7 months imprisonment. They were force-fed after a hunger strike. Public outrage pushed women suffrage

  • Nineteenth Amendment was ratified in 1920

  • The war caused beer to seem unpatriotic and a waste of grain

  • Eighteenth Amendment was ratified in 1919 and effective in 1920

  • There were arguments about whether the Constitution protects

  • The Espionage Act prohibited interfering with draft and speech that may impede military success

  • The Sedition Act prohibited critics of the Government
    • Eugene V. Debs was convicted for 10 years for an antiwar speech

  • Schools started to teach patriotism

  • American Protective League
    • Spy on their neighbors

    • Stop people on the street to produce draft card

  • IWW was destroyed by the government

  • Dictionary of Races of Peoples ranked more than 45 different “races”

  • Public schools tried to Americanize children of the immigrants

  • Israel Zangwill created the play The Melting Pot

  • Randolph Bourne pointed out there is no distinctive American culture in his essay “Trans-National America”

  • Strong anti-German sentiment arose after America’s involvement in the war

  • IQ tests suggested that blacks and new immigrants were less mentally capable than others

  • Indiana force-steralized 63,000 insane and “feeble-minded” people by 1960
    • Upheld by the supreme court in Buck v. Bell

    • Justice Oliver Holmes claimed “three generations of imbeciles are enough”

  • Segregation of Mexicans was common in California

  • All Asians in San Francisco were forced to go to the same school

  • Gentleman’s Agreement of 1907: Japan agreed to end immigration to the US except for relatives of men in the US

  • California barred all Asians from owning or leasing land in 1913

  • Blacks were barred from joining unions and skilled employments

  • Most reformers accepted segregation as natural and equitable

  • Black womens were still limited from voting after Nineteenth Amendment because of poll tax and literacy test

  • TR invited Booker T. Washington to the White House and appointed many black federal officers

  • TR ordered the discharge of 156 black soldiers because the death of one resident by a small group of unidentified blacks

  • Woodrow Wilson dismissed many black federal employees and imposed segregation

  • Wilson allowed Birth of A Nation, a film that glorified KKK

  • Du Bois believed educated African Americans must challenge the inequity

  • Du Bois created National Association for the Advancement of Colored People after witnessed a lynching
    • Bailey v. Alabama declared the peonage law (illegal for sharecroppers to break their labor contracts) unconstitutional

  • The navy barred blacks during WWI

  • The Great Migration: A large percentage black migration from the South to the North during WWI
    • Motivations: higher wages, no lynching, right to vote

    • Encountered mast disappointments

  • Riot in St. Louis, IL killed a few dozen of blacks because employers recruited blacks to weaken the unions

  • A black teenager was drowned for crossing the unofficial racial division line in a beach. 38 were killed and 500 injured.

  • Tulsa riot: a white mob burned the black part of the Tulsa, caused 300 deaths and 10,000 people left homeless

  • Garveyism: blacks should enjoy the same international recognition as others


  • Wilson wanted to maintain peace in Europe if US stayed neutral

  • Staying neutral helps maintaining trades with European countries

  • Wilson’s policy was pro-ally in terms of philosophy

  • US lent 27m dollar to the Central power and 2b dollars to the Ally by 1917

  • Wilson’s wartime principles
    • Neutral nations can trade with nations at war except for trading contrabands, which include war supplies

    • Freedom of The Seas

    • Give warnings to ships and time to evacuate before sinking them

  • William Bryan suggested banning traveling on belligerent ships

  • Wilson issued an ultimatum to Germany for submarine warfare

  • Peace without Victory
    • US mediated peace

    • International organization to promote peace

  • Key event brought the US into war
    • German decision to reinvigorate unrestricted submarine warfare
      • Germany was banking on the US entering the war slower than they did

    • Zimmerman Telegram
      • Intercepted and decoded by the Britain

      • Asking Mexican alliance if the US enters the war

      • Promised the return of Mexican land obtained by the US in 1848

    • March revolution in Russia
      • More consistent Russian government with the US ideals (democracy)

  • Wilson’s declaration of war
    • Submarine warfare was the one against mankind